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Advancing Creative Solutions to Assure Fairness and Excellence in Education

Change requires both vision and action. Maryland has an opportunity now to demonstrate that it can move boldly to ensure continuing economic growth in the state by fostering educational equity and equality for all of its citizens.
Miles To Go: Maryland (1999)

George Peabody1865-1877:

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1865 US Congress creates the federal Freedmen's Bureau to assist freed slaves to build, among other things, schools.
1866 Atlanta University receives its charter, beginning two decades of rapid growth for the creation of dozens of Black schools that would become the historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) of the South.
1867 Peabody Education Fund organizes to aid the "common people" of the South --working primarily to establish a permanent system of public education in the South and to enlarge the number of qualified teachers in the region.
1868 The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution is ratified, granting the rights of citizenship to any person born or naturalized in the United States.
1869 Peabody Fund grants $4000 to North Carolina and Georgia in support of teachers for African American students.
African Americans become a majority of the teachers in the South's Black schools, which are mostly primary schools.
1870 Peabody Fund allocates $16,600 for support of African American schools.
Freedmen's Bureau schools enroll over 100,000 African American students.
1872 Peabody Fund supports growth of public schools for Blacks and Whites across the South in places such as Huntsville, Alabama; Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia; Hazelhurst and Crystal Springs, Mississippi; Monticello, Florida; and Beauford, South Carolina.
Southern states fund public schools and, for the first time in American history, establish public education as a state responsibility in the South.
1873 The first Black graduate of Harvard University, Richard T. Greener, is appointed to the faculty of the University of South Carolina. White students and faculty leave the college in protest.
1874 Peabody Fund reports: "the public mind in nearly all [Southern] states is more and more imbued with the doctrine of free schools "
Near death, US Senator Charles Sumner proposes a civil rights bill that, among other provisions, would integrate public schools. The Virginia Assembly and other Southern legislatures condemn the bill.
1875 Federal civil rights bill passes US Congress without a school provision. It guarantees equal rights to African Americans in public accommodations and jury duty.
1876 In the presidential election, the votes in the Electoral College are too close to decide who is President, Samuel Tilden (Democrat) or Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican).
1877 Rutherford B. Hayes becomes US President after a deal with Southern Democrats that ends Reconstruction by withdrawing federal troops from the South and ending all federal efforts to protect the civil rights of African Americans.
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